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Titanium Alloys & Niobium

Because titanium has the highest strength-to-weight ratio, it is great for a wide range of applications. Whether you need metal for joint replacements or an aircraft's structural components—The Body Wire Company has you covered. Call or email us for more information.


Generally speaking, titanium alloys are classified into three main categories—alpha, beta, and alpha-beta. Alpha alloys aren't heat treatable, and they only contain neutral alloying elements (such as tin) or alpha stabilizers (like aluminum and oxygen).

Beta alloys are metastable, and they contain sufficient beta stabilizers (such as molybdenum and vanadium), allowing them to completely retain the beta phase upon quenching. They can be solution-treated and aged to achieve significant increases in strength. Alpha-Beta alloys are heat-treatable to various degrees, and they contain a combination of alpha and beta stabilizers.



This titanium alloy is well known as a workhorse. It is by far the most common titanium alloy, accounting for over 50% of total titanium usage. Ti 6Al-4V is an alpha-beta alloy that is heat treatable, achieving moderate increases in strength.


When you need a lightweight alloy with excellent corrosion resistance that offers high strength at low to moderate temperatures, take advantage of Ti 6Al-4V. It can be used in applications like medical devices, aircraft turbine engine components, aircraft structural components, aerospace fasteners, high-performance automotive parts, and marine and sports equipment.


This is a higher-purity (extra-low interstitial) version of Ti 6Al-4V. This alpha-beta alloy has lower specified limits on iron and the interstitial elements of carbon and oxygen. Due to its excellent biocompatibility, Ti 6Al-4V ELI has been used for many medical and dental applications.


This alloy can be used in any biomedical application--particularly in implantable components. Surgical titanium is known for its biocompatibility, good fatigue strength, and low modulus. When you need a combination of high strength, light weight, good corrosion resistance, and high toughness, this is the right product for you.

Some typical applications include joint replacements, bone fixation devices, surgical clips, and cryogenic vessels. When compared to Ti6 Al-4V, the ELI grade has superior damage tolerance, including fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth rate. ELI also has better mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures.


Significant Characteristics and Applications

  • Excellent corrosion resistance in concentrated acids and liquid alkaline metals
  • Very ductile and therefore very good chipless forming
  • Good heat resistance and high melting point
  • Under 9.26 K superconductive
  • Low neutron capture cross section


Niobium and its alloys are used for chemical process technology, for electronics as a component of superconductors or capacitors and for nuclear technology as reactor components. Electrochemically produced Niobium-Oxide layers generate Newton’s rings. Due to this fact, pure Niobium is also used for jewelry and coin metal.

Physical Properties

  • Element Symbol Nb
  • Atomic Number 41
  • Atomic Mass 92.91
  • Valency 2, 3, 4, 5
  • Density (20 °C) 8.57 g/cm³
  • Crystal Structure body-centered cubic (bcc)
  • Melting Point 2468 °C
  • Boiling Point 4927 °C
  • Vapor Pressure 1 ·10-7 hPa (~1800 °C)
  • 1 ·10-5 hPa (~2000 °C)
  • Specific Electrical Resistivity 0.15 ·10-6 Ω · m (20 °C)
  • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 7.1 · 10-6 K-1 (20 °C)
  • 7.9 · 10-6 K-1 (1000 °C)
  • Thermal Conductivity 52 W/m · K-1 (20 °C)
  • 65 W/m · K-1 (1000 °C)

Mechanical Properties

  • Hardness 90-120 HV (typ.)
  • E-Modulus 103 GPa (20 °C)
  • Tensile Strength Rm 125 MPa (typ.)
  • Yield Strength Rp 0.2 75 MPa (typ.)
  • Elongation A 25 % (typ.)

Important Alloys

  • Nb 99.8+ % (R04200 type 1 – Reactor grade unalloyed Nb, Ta ≤ 0.1 %)
  • Nb 99.6+ % (R04210 type 2 – Commercial grade unalloyed Nb, Ta ≤ 0.3 %)

ASTM Standard Specifications

  • ASTM B392 (Niobium and Niobium Alloy Bar, Rod and Wire)
  • ASTM B393 (Niobium and Niobium Alloy Strip, Sheet and Plate)